Just like the original Juno 106, the JU-06 has only one DCO (digitally controlled oscillator). Instead of having 2 or 3 oscillators, the JU-06 uses its chorus to fatten the sound.
The DCO provides square/pulse and sawtooth waveforms; which can be played each solo or simultaneously. Sawtooth waveforms are great for bass or brass sounds, while square/pulse waveforms are very good for bass or pads (pulse modulated by LFO: PWM). The square wave is also great for flute-like sounds.
In addition there is also a SUB-oscillator and a NOISE generator. The SUB is a square-wave pitched one octave beneath the core oscillator. It adds extra low end; can fatten up the sounds and it's often used for bass sounds. NOISE adds noise to the sound. It can also be used solo by turning both square and sawtooth wave off. Noise can be used for wind and water sounds, percussion and special effects.
The RANGE (16, 8, 4) specifies the octave of the oscillator: 8 is the fundamental; 16 is one octave lower and 4 one octave higher. The numbers 16, 8 and 4 for the octaves historically originate from the lengths of organ pipes (measured in feet).
PWM stands for pulse width modulation, which changes the symmetrical square wave (50% pulse width) to an asymmetrical pulse wave. The LFO/MAN switch provides two modes: In manual mode (MAN), the PWM slider adjusts the value of the pulse width - in its lowest setting we have a square wave; in LFO mode, the LFO modulates the pulse width, and the PWM slider determines the modulation depth.
The LFO slider allows the LFO to modulate the pitch. It creates a vibrato effect.